Last modified: 2001-04-27

Frequently Asked Questions

- General - Editing the Game - Game Engine in depth - Multi Player - Miscellaneous -

- The Badboy value explained -

First advice: The game has 59 built in FAQ tips.

If you don't find what you are looking for here take a look at
Paul "Oranje" Vermaas's EU FAQ.
If you find navigating his FAQ slow as *beep*, check my tip under Miscellaneous.

A new addition to the EU commuity I really recommend everyone take a look at is EU Province with a lot of tables from the game. Check it out!

Also don't forget to use the search function on the forum once in a while. It's usually very god at finding relevant threads to your questions.

1. How do I board my troops onto my ships ?
2. What does blockading of ports do ?
3. Why does the cost for next stability/tech level change during the game ?
4. What are owned, controlled & national provinces ?
5. How does "fog of war" affect the game ?
6. What does the different colors on the geographical map mean ?
7. I have problems with offering Peace sometimes.
8. There's supposed to be music, why can't I hear it ?
9. How do I offer the AI a peace it will never refuse ?
10. Why doesn't my incomes match up to the values stated by the game ?
11. How do I burn enemy trading posts during war ?
12. How does religion affect my provinces revoltrisk ?
13. Umm, how do I find the religion sliders in the first place ?
14. How do I get rid of double missions?
15. How is the recruiting pool calculated ?
16. Is it true that you need to have a common border to Vassalise a minor ?
17. Why does it seem harder to vassalise countries lately ?
18. Which provinces belong to the Holy Roman Empire ?
19. How do you get elected as the HR Emperor ?
20. I've conquerd all provinces of a minor, why can't I annex it ?
21. When I try to get money in a peace negotiation why I don't get the full amount ?
22. Why isn't there a Demo for the game ?
23. What does the colors on countries in the relations map represent ?
24. What effects does the Treaty of Tordesillas have on the game ?
25. Problems with my savegame, why are all my incomes 0 ?
26. Royal marriages end when the monarch in question dies don't they ?
27. What is the minimum troop requirement to enter/siege a province ?

Editing the Game
1. How do I make my own senario ?
2. What about leaders (explores, admirals, generals) ?
3. How do you edit the game to play minors ?
4. How do you edit the game to remove major status from a country ?
5. Yeah, but I want to change this in my current savegame !
6. How do I change the place of the capital for a country ?
7. Manually editing the savefile to for instace remove double missions.
8. What obstacles are there to playing a noneuropean minor ?
9. Where do I change starting religion for a country ?
10. How do I edit the game to change county in a current campaign ?
11. How do I make my own country annexable ?

Game Engine in depth
1. What are the Land & Naval Military Technology Classes ?
2. What effect does the Techclasses have on combat ?
3. What is the Combat Power ?
4. How does the internal calculations in the combatsystem work ?
5. How does terrain affect combat ?
6. What does the numbers in Combats & Sieges represent ?
7. Attrition, how is it calculated ?
8. What are the percent chanses for Trading Posts and Colonies ?
9. How are the income from merchants in CoT's calculated ?
10. Province "Capital" population levels & effects.

Multi Player
1. Can you use Pause in MP games ?
2. How is the fastest way to resume a MP savegame ?
3. What is the best way of ingame communications between players ?
4. Do I have to have a 512kb+ connection to play online ?

1. Who's who of the Pardox guys ?
2. How to read Oranjes FAQ without having to wait for the adds.
3. What are the different ranks on the Forum ?
4. What should I do if my game crashes ?
5. Can you use cheats in MP games ?


1. How do I board my troops onto my ships ?

Firstly, make sure the (total) weight of your land unit(s) are not more then the weight your fleet can carry. Then place the fleet in the seazone adjacent (ie NOT in the port) to where your landunit is standing. Now move your landunit to the seazone just as if it had been a landprovince.
To unload troops from ships however you can either press unload and "walk" the armies ashore or simply sail your ships into a port and the armies will automatically be put ashore in the same province. This last part however, does not apply if the port is only a [shift+click] waypoint on the way somewhere else (to reduce attrition), in which case the troops will stay onboard for the continued ride.
The reason for this (rather unintuitive) procedure of not beeing able to board a ship at port is that ground units can't attack naval units so you would be able to protect an army from attack in that way. Also ships in port recive no attrition and thus troops aboard such ships would be imune to attrition indefinitly.

2. What does blockading of ports do ?

Helps with sieges (by cutting sea supplies) & lowers the income of the province to about half of normal. The latter can economically cripple an opponent with many coastal provinces. A much prefered tactic for any naval power like England versus France. Remember though that before naval tech 19 you do not have access to blockading technology. To do the blockade once your at naval 19+ and at war with an opponent, take a sufficently large fleet and place it in the sea area outside any enemy harbour. The province capital will have padlocks in the info screen to show it is now under blockade.

3. Why does the cost for next stability/tech level change during the game ?

Stability & Tech level increase costs is based on the size of your country (ie base cost for tech x number of provinces, though not solely). Colonies/trading posts aren't included in the number of provinces until they become Cities (ie larger than 700 people).
The reason it works like this is that the cost of a new technology is not only the researching of it but also the cost of replacing all redundant and obsolete technology in your entire realm.
Also, from patch 1.06 onward, provinces with a different religion then the state religion costs twice as much. Thus bevare, if you have many provinces religion differing from your statereligion, raising stability might be a tedious task.

4. What are owned, controlled & national/core provinces ?

Owner is the country to whom the province belongs.
Controlled province is a province with the city under the controll of a nation other the the Owner. This can only happen between nations at war with each other or during revolts.
When you click on a province the owner & the current controller will be shown by the nation shields at the top in the left info screen (left shield is current controlling nation while the right is the owner).
A National/Core province is considered "your" province (and are denoted by small shields on the political screen), but might currently be owned by another country. In that case you have a claim on it, which gives you a permanent CB (no -2 stability penalty if you declare war) to whatever country is the current owner of that province. Some provinces, historically much fought over, might be National/Core to more then one country.

5. How does "fog of war" affect the game ?

You can only see units in other nations provinces that are next to one of your provinces or units, unless you have a Royal Marriage or Alliance with that nation, in which case you see all their provinces. This, in case of a Royal Marriage, works even while your currently at war with the nation.
During wars you will also be able too "see" one province away from your allies troops & provinces.

6. What does the different colors on the geographical map mean?

The terrain affects Movement, Combat and Attrition in the province. White denotes winter conditions in the province currently, which largely increase attrition.

From the manual:
ColorMovement CostMovement Points/month
National bordercrossings+0.5

7. I have problems with offering Peace sometimes.

"it's October 13, 1534 ... ...I can't offer peace before December 1533."

This happens when you try to offer a peace and, at the same time, the AI is trying to offer you one as well.
Check for small flags to your upper right of the screen. Click on them and answer. If you decide not to accept, try offering a peace again and it should work.
If there are no flags, offer something else that does work, like exchange of maps, Royal Marriage, insult etc. After that you should be able to offer them peace again.
You can also adjust the way various messages are displayed in one of the menus to have all peace offers pop up as small windows, to avoid not noticing them.

8 There's supposed to be music in the background, why can't I hear it ?

Most probably you are missing the cable between you CD-player & soundcard.
If your using W2k you have an option to use digital playback of music. In this case switch it on (have not tested myself yet), otherwise you will have to open up your computer and add/connect this cable.
Update: If all else fails, download the music as mp3's from the downloadsection on Paradox's site and run them on an mp3 player (for instance winamp) in the background during play.

9. How do I offer the AI a peace it will never refuse ?

If you offer a peace 4 "stars" or more lower then your "entitled" to, the AI always accepts your offer. However, every "star" 1-3 lower increases the successrate for a peace substantially.

10. Why doesn't my incomes match up to the values stated by the game ?

There is something called economic & trade efficiency rating which equals Infrastructural & Trade tech level divided by 10 respectively. Sometimes however, it doesn't add up anyway ...
Remember though that the game uses 6 decimal values for most of it's calculations ingame, but the rounding of the values shown in the interface can lead to large discrepancies from the true values.

11. How do I burn enemy trading posts during war ?

After taking control of the province with an army, click on the province again. Close to the 'show info' button there should now be a 'burn down' option to have you army destroy the trading post.
If you want the province for yourself, send a colonist or trader to the province immediately before someone else does it.

12. How does religion affect my provinces revoltrisk ?

There are some important things to know of about religion and corresponding revoltrisk. The tolerance slider varies the revolt risk in provinces from -9% to +11% (lower is better).
This is true for all religions except for the current state religion which has a +5% to revolt modifier.
This is probably a gamebalancing thing, to basicly force you to always maximize tolerance towards statereligion and even then still not be entirely safe from revolts during long periods of wartime etc.
However it does bring with it the somewhat akward effect of having much less of a revoltrisk if you state religion is completly different from the majority of you provinces. This however is countered by stability improvement beeing 2x as costly for provinces not of you state religion, which could potentially get you into deep troubles if you for some reason loose a lot of stability.
A less risky way of taking advantage of this though is if your country has for instance two dominant religions of which one is the state religion. If you try to maximise the sliders for both these religions and also only upgrade Bailiffs (which gives a +3% to revolt risk) in the "second" religion provinces, you will have a very "revolt resistant" country. However in a 300 year campaign you will want to upgrade all your Baliffs to Tax collectors, due to the extra income, so this strategy works best in scenarios with a shorter timespan.
You can see the current revoltrisk and what elements add upp to it by hovering the mousepointer above the Revolt % in the province info screen.
Update - The +5% modifier will be gone in 1.08 again, due to massive complaints by players. Something else might be put in the game to increase the revoltrisk slightly again in a later patch.

13. Umm, how do I find the religion sliders in the first place ?

Click on you country shield at the top left of you screen. Then click the shield that denotes your current statereligion and there you are. Clicking the religion shield in the information screen of any province also gets you there.

14. How do I get rid of double missions?

"I have two missions saying the same thing "Hold Tyrol", and both end sometime in the 31st century."

This happens when you have no missions selected currently, are just about to choose a mission and the AI simutaneously chooses the same mission as you just did.
Once you get this problem you will have to manually edit the savefile or load a savegame from before the incident (or just live with it). To keep this from happening again always keep 2 or 3 missions going at the same time with different start/end date. This way they don't end all at once so the AI (at the turn of the month) picks one at random for you before you manage to pick (a good) one yourself.

15. How is the recruiting pool calculated ?

It's the manpower sum of provinces on the same continent as your capital. There also appears to be a minimum of 20k max +10k per year. Each Consription Center also adds substantially to the value of the province it is in.
It's a bit difficult to manually calculate how much each province adds to your recruit pool each year as there appears to be large rounding errors involved in the value shown in the info screen.

16. Is it true that you need to have a common border to Vassalise a minor ?

No you do not need a common boarder to vassalise. The manual is incorrect (the Swedish at least).
You do need a common border for a diplomatical annexation though. Remeber however that even when there is a body of water between provinces, in some cases you are still considerd bordering, especially when it comes to islands. The most notable/common example is Spain annexing Naples, which he is able to do since he's in controll of Sicilly and can walk to the Italian mainland (ie Naples) from there.

17. Why does it seem harder to vassalise countries lately ?

Since the 1.07c patch you cannot vassalise a country with more provinces then your own country. Also, sometimes the game used to forget to check that Royal Marriages & Alliances where in order.

18. Which provinces belong to the Holy Roman Empire ?

The 31 provinces that constitutes the HRE in province.csv are:

Alsace, Anhalt, Ansbach, Baden, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Bremen, Cologne, Danzig, E Pommerania, E Prussia, Hannover, Hessen, Holstein, Kleves, Kustrin, Lorraine, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mecklenburg, Memel, Munster, Oldenburg, Pfalz, Saxony, Silesia, Sudeten, Thuringen, W Pommerania, W Prussia and Wurtemburg.

These are NOT the same as the ones you can see on the religion screen inside the red borders (mouse hover text "belongs to the HRE").
The ingame provinces belonging to the HRE are much more numerous, however they DON'T include the crucial provinces of:
E Prussia
W Prussia
Be wary of these if you choose certain missions, for instance "keep Poland out of HRE".

19. How do you get elected as the HR Emperor ?

It's basicly a popularity contest. The Catholic state with the highest total diplomatic relation with all countries within the HRE (or possibly only the Electors) get it's Monarch choosen during the election to be the Emperor. There might be some random modification also.

20. I've conquerd all provinces of a minor, why can't I annex it ?

A totaly conquerd minor can refuse annexation as long as it still has allies at war with you. It still has hopes for an iminent resque by it's allies. Make peace with those allies and tell the minor that "resistance is futile ..." and they will let you assimilate them =).

21. When I try to get money in a peace negotiation why I don't get the full amount ?

Even if the AI agrees to say paying 250D it just gives you maximum the amount it currently has in the treasury. If it only got 2D, that's what you get. To avoid this as much as possible either try to make peace quickly, while the enemy still haven't spent all his ducats buying troops and/or in january when he has just recived his yearly Census taxes.
The reason for this is to prevent the possible "Cash-cow" exploit, that surfaced late in the beta testing (though it's a well known bug in the BG too =), of repetedly attaking weak 1 province nations, taking the capital and demanding an easy 1750 dukats once a year or so in cash.

22. Why isn't there a Demo for the game ?

Paradox deliberately made the game extreemly easy to edit, so that people can basicly change almost everything in the game, from playable scenarios to creating entirely new nations with flags and all.
This wonderfull feature however makes it extreemly difficult to produce a playable gamedemo that cannot easily be modified into a full version game. The only way to do it would be to remove some very crucial parts of the game like the AI & Multi Player possibilities.
But then it's not really an accurate enough demo of the game to even be worth downloading in the first place.

23. What does the colors on countries in the relations map represent ?

It's a graphical representaion of relations between the country currently choosen and the rest (red is bad, green is good & no color neutral). The exact numbers are presented on the diplomatic relations screen to your left, but the colors give a quick overview of where the (chosen) country has it's friends and enemies.
Update: You also have a relations towards yourself. I'm not shure exactly what it does but perhaps it affects the chance of getting civil wars etc. For shure though, is that taking money in peace agreements increases it by 10 for each full 250 D you recieve and breaking royal marriages drops it by 70.

24. What effects does the Treaty of Tordesillas have on the game ?

The treaty of Tordesillas is an historical event that appear when a first non Spanish or Portuguese country builds a TP/colony (?) in the New World. It's the pope that divides the New world in a Spanish and a Portuguese influence zone.
Until the event Edict of Tolerance (about 1640) Spain or Portugal can enter and take controll and ownership of TP & colonies from any Catholic (and catholic only) nation in their "zone of influence" without even declaring war. To know exactly which provinces are affected you can see small shields in the colonial view map, depicting either Spanish or Portugese "ownership".
To defend your settlements, either keep a standing army in the province to defend it or convert to another religion.

25. Problems with my savegame, why are all my incomes 0 ?

To keep the savefiles from beeing really HUGE (it's already 2MB+), all unnessecary data (that is recomputed every month) isn't included. Just run the game to the next turn of the month and everything will be recalculated.
Temporal effects of random events (and monarch special abilities) however are also not saved, and are lost if you reload the game.

26. Royal marriages, when can you make them who long do they last ?

A RM lasts 25 years unless broken before that. It's usually NOT (but might be) the monarch that marries in a RM, just someone "close to the power". Thus the King dying doesn't mean it will end as his brothers/sisters or cousins don't have to divorce whom ever they where married to =).

Usually you can make Royal Marriages with other countries if your relations is -150 or above except between -4 & +19 (though look in the manual concerning religion).
The reason for this is intended and is supposed to reflect that good and a bit shaky relations are when people would like to have a RM with you (they like you or would want to avoid a war if possible), while if you hate each others guts or are simply indifferent towards each other likelyhood of negotiating a successfull RM would be lower.

27. What is the minimum troop requirement to enter/siege a province ?

Lvl x 2500 men to Enter/Stay/Cover an enemy controlled province.
Lvl x 3000 men to Cover & split of remider in new unit.
Lvl x 5000 men to Siege a fortress.
Lvl x 6000 men to Siege & split of remider in new unit.

Remember that the minimum force to enter a province only apply if there are NO armies from any side in the province!! This btw is the main reason for the very annoying "bouncing retreat" units that keep retreating from one province to the other. If an enemy unit breakes it's moral and is surrounded by only e.g. lvl 2 enemy controlled fortresses any force with less then 5000 men will be completly annihilated instead of retreating.

Lvl = Fortress level
10 Cannons count as 1000 men.
Covering an enemy controlled fortress allows you to draw supply through the province to allied troops further inside enemy territory.
Pushing the Siege & Cover buttons splits of the minimum force required to Siege/Cover +20% (the topmost unit is the one to leave when you move your troops away).
If you have several armies in an enemy controlled province the cover & siege buttons might not be available even if the total force available is enough.

Editing the Game

1. How do I make my own senario ?

It's not hard at all to make almost anything you'd want, you just need time and dedication to do it. It's just text files you need to change, but you screw up easily. The more you want to change, the more time you'll need. To get some idea for a simple scenario, look here.

2. What about leaders (explores, admirals, generals)?

Not very hard either, as long as you don't mind using fancy non-historic names for them. To get an idea, download Oranje´s Dutch scenario, unzip it and take a look at the leader files. Just as easy to fool around with as you'll see.

3. How do you to edit the game to play minors ?

Read here
and/or here

4. How do you edit the game to remove major status from a country ?

The only way to modify Majorpower status is to "erase" the countries you don't want to be unconquerable from a copy of the scenario-file (.eug). So if you want to play the Grand Campaign as France, wanting to annex the whole world, make a copy of the GC file and erase all countries but France from it and start your campaign from it.

5. Yeah, but I want to change this in my current savegame !

To be on the safe side:
1) First start a new campaign with your current scenario.
2) Save immediately and quite the game.
3) Make a new copy of the scenario as described above.
4) Start a new campaign with your newly edited scenario and save imediately.
5) Open up your two savefiles and incorporate all differences between the two to the savegame you originally wanted to change.
Be carefull though as even very small errors can lead to frequent crashes.

For those not wanting to do it the hard way, Graf von Bismarck, posted this condensed howto description on the German board. It's been confirmed to work by other players with 1.07C. However as future patches might change things in the savefile that might affect the correct procedure, return to the above "safe" solution if the below method doesn't work properly.

1.) Load savegame in a text editor (wordpad, ultraedit etc).
2.) At the beginning You´ll find entries for all selectable countries. Delete every entry except the one for Your own country.
3.) Using the search function, find the entries, where all the info for the various countries are listed. Those entries always begin with

country = {
tag = xxx

You´ll have to find the entries for the countries You want to be annexable now.
4.) In every such entry change the line "major = yes" to "major = no"
5.) Now, at the end of the file You´ll find entries beginning with "eyr= {" for all the selectable countries. Delete those blocks for all countries save Your own.
6.) Lastly, at the end of the file You´ll also see the entries "landtech", "navaltech", "army", "navy" and "size". You´ll have to delete the entries for the soon to be annexable countries there.
7.) Save
8.) Start a game and load the edited savegame. The countries in question should be annexable now.

6. How do I change the place of the capital for a country ?

In the .inc file for changes in the beginning of the campaign.
In the revolt.txt file in the DB directory for countries emerging or reemerging via a revolt.

7. Manually editing the savefile to for instace remove double missions.

The savegame file is a huge 2+ MB textfile in your EU/Scenarios/Save games folder.
To edit something open up your [your savagame].eug file in your favorite texteditor (I recomend Ultraedit) and begin with looking for your country tag, which looks like this for Austria:

country = {
tag = HAB

Everything is uncoded text so most things are pretty selfexplanatory. To remove current ongoing double missions find the missions part (before the next country), which looks something like this:

mission = {
type = 1
id = { type = 4712 id = 349718 }
date = { year = 1522 month = february day = 14 }
vpvalue = 20
penvalue = 13
province = 329
... Next mission

Just remove these mission entries, save, reload the game AND remember to reselect at least 1 mission before you start the clock.

8. What obstacles are there to playing a noneuropean minor ?

Even if you take a fully functional minortag (there are a few special for testing purposes) there are some things hardcoded in the game that depends on the region (check your province.csv) where the capital resides.
For instance, takeing a European tag and placing it in the Indochina region to play Japan will make it impossible to buy buildings. There doesn't appear to be a way to change this either (though looking into the fantasia scenario could potentially give a clue).

9. Where do I change starting religion for a country ?

In the scenario .inc file.

10. How do I edit the game to change county in a current campaign ?

Actually it's very easy and doesn't even require any editing. Just start a new campaign with the country you want to play with. In game then load your old savegame and you'll be playing the new country in the old game.

11. How do I make my own country annexable ?

The easy way if you play singleplayer and don't mind that there is at least one major in the game is:

1) Start a new scenario with any major and save it.
2) Edit the scenario to have a chooseable country not among the available with the original in step 1.
3) Start the edited scenario with the country you added.
4) Load the savegame with the majors you did in step 1.

... with a little luck, you will soon be annexed by an evil powermongering superpower. However when you get annexed the game will crash to desktop... but it's over anyway isn't it =)

The advanced way to do it as Hartmann describes it:

Some players have complained, that one cannot loose the game by being annexed. But it can be done by a little editing. For simplicity´s sake I will describe the variant, where ALL countries INCLUDING Your own will be annexable:

1.) Make a scenario.eug where only the country You want to play is choosable.
2.) Start game and immediately save and exit.
3.) Load Your savegame [country]_january1492.eug into wordpad.
4.) At the beginning You´ll find the deskentry for Your country. Delete it for Your country. If You´re playing e.g. France it will look like (For any other country it will look accordingly).:

FRA = {
picture = "scenarios\data\FRA1520.bmp"
scenariotactics = "FRA_GC_HISTDESC"
countrytactics = "FRA_GC_VPTACTIC"
missioncountry = "FRA_GC_MISSDESC"
missiontactics = "FRA_GC_MISSTACT"
playername = "Goldene Horde : PC0310"
countrydifficulty = 7
countryeconomy = 6
countrymilitary = 7
countrydiplomacy = 6
missiontype = 0
numcities = 4
numcolonies = 1
numtradingposts = 0
numgold = 87

5.) Using the search function, find the entry, where all the main info for Your country is listed (it´s almost at the end of the file). This entry begins with:

country = {
tag = [TAG]

Within this entry change the line "major = yes" to "major = no"
6.) Now, at the end of the file You´ll find an entry beginning with "eyr= {". Within this block, delete those clauses which begin with Your tag ("TAG=..."). Every correct deletion of a clause will always leave an empty pair of brackets "{}" in place, within which the deleted subentry formerly lingered. The to be edited clauses are "wealth", "pe", "te", "inflation", "landtech", "navaltech", "army", "navy", "size".
7.) Save and exit

You now have created a savegame, which is not loadable from the starting screen (because clicking on it will give You no country shield to choose). So what You have to do now is:

8.) Start a new game with Your "scenario.eug".
9.) Load the edited savegame from within the game.

This will leave You an annexable power from now on. As EU is not really programmed to handle this situation by providing an appropriate endsequence, in every game where You encounter the fate of being annexed, the whole world will simply fold in on You and You´ll find Yourself on the desktop...

P.S.: Once You´ve edited that savegame the way I told You, You can use it with *every* scenario...

One thing though, in MP games annexing the server player might not be such a greate idea. =)

Game Engin in depth

1. What are the Land & Naval Military Technology Classes/Eras ?

Both Land and Naval Technology levels are grouped into a few Classes/Eras. Reaching a new class/era represents a major advancement in warfare tactics and/or equipment.

Military Technology
8-11Arquebus11-19Latin Sail
29-42Movement36-42Trois Ponts

2. What effect does the Techclasses/eras have on combat ?

The Technology Classes/eras determines which Column on the CRT (Combat Result Table) is used for determening Casualities & Moral loss inflicted on the opponent.

CRT Column determination - Land
Fire / ShockMedRenArqMusBarMovDen
CRT Column determination - Naval
Fire / ShockGlyCarGlnLatBatVaiTrP
Latin SailB/BA/AB/B[B/B]C/CD/CE/D
Trois PontsA/AA/AA/AA/AA/AB/B[C/C]

3. What is the Combat Power ?

Every army and fleet has a Firepower & a Shock/Boarding Power depending on the strenght points of each and every soldier/ship in it. In the Land or Naval.csv (in the DB folder) you can find each unittype's value corresponding to it's county's current Military technology.

Lets take a small army of 10000/4000/20 (Inf/Cav/Art) of Techlevel 14 and calculate it's Fire & Shock power and Morale value. From the Land.csv we get the following values:

Tech Level 14 unit stats
Fire strenght10150
Shock strenght1420
Morale strenght3,25

The Combat Power of this unit is thus:
13.000 during the fire phase (10000x1 + 20x150) and
26.400 during the shock phase (10000x1 + 4000x4 + 20x20)

And the total Moral loss it can take before the soldiers "relocates" to the local pub is
2.8 to 4.75 Moral Points

100% upkeep = full morale
50% upkeep = about 75% morale
(seems to be either 31/40 or 30/40, have now idea why it isn't constant)
Shia or Reformed religion adds futher +1,0
Turkey also for some reason gets +1,0 morale for it's troops
(don't know if they always had +1 or if it's a recent change to help Turkey tackle Mamelucks and Persia forces)

4. How does the internal calculations in the combatsystem work ?

Paradox has not revealed in public how the game engine works exactly but looking at the original boardgame, when two armies battle it out, gives a fair clue (fleets are handled the exact same way except for taking the wind into account).
Moral is a little less straightforward though. It's apparently handled basicly the same as in the BG during the combat, except for morale modifies (adding religion and maintainance factors but removing veterans). However it is regained a bit differently due to the CG beeing in realtime.

Each Fire and Shock/Boarding phase both sides get a random value (between 1 to 10), modified by terrain & positive relative leader skillvalue.
The numbers in the circles are the relative Combat Power of the two sides, however it is not a factor unless one side is outnumbered 10:1 in the shock phase (in which case the smaller force imediately breakes moral). It does not affect the battle otherwise, so don't pay any attention to it.
The +/- values are actuall CRT modifiers, however they don't include the terrain modifiers, which sadly also makes them relativly useless as a good prediction to the battle outcome.

The modified value in each phase is looked up in the CRT in the apropriate column depending on what Military Class/Era the respective sides belong to.
The Casualities inflicted on the other side is then calculated from the % attained from the CRT multiplied by the Combat Power of the force.
Moral loss is deducted from the oponents initial Moral Value as a fixed value attained from the CRT Moral column, unrelated to the realtive size of the two sides.
This is repeated every Fire & Shock/Boarding phase untill either side either:
a) pulls back (ie a volontary withdrawal)
b) breakes morale
c) is totaly eliminated.

Combat Result Table
ResultCas %MoralCas %MoralCas %MoralCas %MoralCas %Moral

Unless you have a supreme leader, most often you will fall somewhere in the 1-10 rows.
To reach the last row (16) you have to get a "die roll" of 10, have a leader with a 6 in skill value while the opponents corresponding value is 0 AND have no adversing terrain effects. IOW this doesn't happen very often =).
A typical combat could yield (CRT 5 on C column) 5% casualities of your Combat Power and 0.5 Points Moral loss inflicted on the enemy each Fire or Shock/Boarding phase. The variation can be quite large though, especially upwards, when lady luck smiles upon you and you have a good leader.

5. How does terrain affect combat ?

Terraintype effects on combat are not revealed in the manual, nor is it shown in the combat screen modifiers/values even though it hugely affects the outcome of the battle. To get a clue lets take a look at the original boardgame modifiers, since there's a high posibility that all these effects are implemented in the game in a very similar manner (if not identical even):

Both sides:
• Dammage inflicted is reduced (CRT -1) in Forrest, Desert & Marsh terrain (except for African & American natives)
• Cavsupremacy (2:1 or more) increases the shockphase dammage you inflict (CRT +1).
(not in forest or marsh terrain or after crossing water)
• Cav Shock Strenght halved in Forrest, Marsh & Mountain terrain.
• Arty Fire Strenght halved in Forrest & Marsh terrain.

Attacker only:
• Arty Fire Strenght halved in Mountain terrain.
• Dammage inflicted is reduced (CRT -1) in Mountains (except for African & American natives)
• Fire casualities inflicted are reduced (CRT -1) if crossing water (rivers, straits or landings)
• Shock casualities inflicted are reduced (CRT -2) if crossing water (rivers, straits or landings)

To sum it up:
Don't attack across water into heavily defended mountains, unless I'm the one defending of course, in which case please go right ahead =)

6. What does the numbers in Combats & Sieges represent ?

The values in the circles represent Attackers Siege Strength (left) and Defenders Siege Defence (right).

Siege Strenght
Highest present Leader siege value+X
No Artillery at all-1
Artillery outnumbering Fortress Level
Siege Defence
Fortress Level+X
Rough Terrain (other then Plains)+2

At the start of every month a siege is held in the Computer Game a siege efficiency test is taken. In the BG this test was done by rolling a D10 and adding the modifiers and then looking up the result on the Siege Table. For referance I've included a table I've made that shows how the BG siege was calculated and the corresponding Result table. It is fair bet that the CG does not diverge very far from it, although it's hard to know exactly how the Result table looks like without actually having access to the game code.

Boardgame Siege Chart

Land Combat:
The values in the circles represent relative combat strenght in the Fire respective Shock Phase. Beeing outnumbered 10:1 (in combat strenght) in the shockphase may lead to your unit beeing overrun & totaly eliminated.
Positive and negative values represent relative leader streght.
Remeber that Terrain effects are not shown but affect the battle never the less. In the case of Fortress Assaults every Fortress level adds -1, in an unbesieged Fortress. I suspect that a fortress with damaged Siege Defences from a siege has it's modifier lowered. The exact values however isn't known to me.

Naval Combat:
Haven't looked into this yet, but it is fairly similar to Land combat except that the side which has the wind has an edge over their opponent.

7. Attrition, how is it calculated ?

Weight of Unit(s) - Available Supplies = Attrition each turn of the month

Attrition chart

These, as far as I've concluded, are the correct values. The values shown in game next to the "skulls" seem to suffer a bit from rounding errors.
When the Maximum attrition % is reached, further attrition % above it is ignored.
Conquistadors have 4x instead of the normal 2x Manouver value modifier in Available Supplies.
Also notice the very seveer 25% attrition penalty for spending a winter "holiday" in enemy owned territory.

8. What are the percent chanses for Trading Posts and Colonies ?

The below values are from NORMAL difficulty games and is most probably not complete!
Most of the values, ranging from 0-9, are not directly accessable from within the game but are only listed in Province.csv. The % on the settlers screen however use these numbers for its calculations.
If you have any additional information missing here please mail me.

The percentage for successfully establishing a Trading Post is:

Tradepost = 60% - 5% x "Negotiationvalue for TP"

America +10%
Sibiria +10%
Tradepost present +5%/lvl

The percentage for successfully establishing a Colony is:

Colony = 70% - 4% x ("Native tolerance value"+"Difficulty for colonization")

America +10%
Sibiria +10%
Quebec Area -4%
Tradepost present +5%
Colony present 5%/lvl
Conquestador present +3%/manuver

The "Native tolerance value" is the same as the aggression value visable in the game. If the natives are eliminated from a province this value drops to 0. Thus eliminating extreemly aggresive (9) natives from a province increases the succsses rate by 9x4% = 36%
Update: The "Difficulty for Colonization" value can bee seen from in the game once you have at least 1 colony level there. It's equal to the negative population expansion modifier
Also remember that presence of a Conquistador is checked at the time of sending the colonist. However, if there are still natives present, an unsuccessful colonisation/TP placement might yield an aggressive respons which might whipe out any previous TP or colony if unprotected by troops.

9. How are the income from merchants in CoT's calculated ?

The monthly income generated in your CoT's by each merchants is:

3 D / 12 = 0,25 D per month

Thus if you have a total of 29 merchants present in CoTs belonging to you your total income is:

29 x 0,25 = 7,25D/month or 87D/year

This is the value shown in the ledger but trade efficiency (rumored to equal techlvl / 10) also plays a part by reducing this amount a fair bit more. However I'm still trying to figure out exactly how this works.

10. Province "Capital" population levels & effects

Population chart

Multi Player

1. Can you use Pause in MP games ?

Yes you can, but it will lead to a very choppy game experience to have 7-8 players pause frequently. Try to play at a pace that makes it possible for everyone to play the game without pausing except at very rare occations.

2. How is the fastest way to resume a MP savegame ?

The savegame is only saved at the Host computer. To begin, or restart after a crash, zip and send it to the other players via e-mail or ICQ to reduce the scenario loading time.

3. What is the best way of ingame communications between players ?

The best way is not to use the chat but an external voice communication program like RogerWilco or Battlecom. This btw goes for any MP game. This has the added benefit of also working if you for some reason would experience an gamecrash.

4. Do I have to have a 512kb+ connection to play online ?

No, that is a worst case scenario requirement. The bandwidth requirement is very tightly connected with the ingame speed, the higher the speed the more data has to be sent between players. Thus, as long as the Host is on a a relatively fast connection and the gamespeed isn't too fast, you can play over a modemconnection.

5. Can you use cheats in MP games ?

No, cheats are disabled.
Potetially you could change some values in a database or the savegame to give you an edge, but the game validates a most of the data bases before the game begins and doesn't allow people with another version to join. Also, almost all critical data is calculated at the server and sent out. Thus it would be very hard to create a successful cheat that even starts, let alone doesn't crash the game (and why would you want to cheat in a 20h+ game with your friends in the first place).


1. Who's who of the Pardox guys ?

Johan (Johan Andersson) is the lead programmer & Patric (Patric Backlund) has head responsibility for the forums and they can both frequently be seen visiting the forum.
Greven (Joakim Bergqwist) is the guy how wrote the manual and usually posts on the forum too.
Fredrik (Fredrik Malmberg) is the Director of Business Development and thus responsible for putting together all the publishing deals.
There are also a lot of the other Paradox guys lurking in the shadows that contributed to EU, but they rarely or never post. However they do read what we think about the game and listen to suggestions.

Well, Patric put the following info in the forum so i though I'ld include it here too.

Lead programmer: Johan Andersson (one hell of a job there)
Programmer: Linus Blomberg, Che Lalic, Niklas Smedberg
Additional programming: Benjamin Abraham, Erik Jonsson, Roger Karlsson, Jon Kågström, Emil Norrman, Richard Löwgren, Viktor Blomberg

Lead artist: Daniel Nygren
Artists: Tony Bagge, Stefan Jalke, Claes Wikdahl

Producer: Henrik Strandberg
Assistant Producer: Klas Berndal

And of course to:
Nils Gulliksson and Fredrik Malmberg who hatched the idea to make a CG out of the board game.
Philippe Thibaut for the original board game and valuable input during the design process.
All the beta testers, you know who you are.

Last but not least:
Heineken, Quake II and Unreal Tournament.

I'm sure I've forgotten someone here but they should be listed in the credits of the game if you are curious.

2. How to read Oranjes FAQ without having to wait for the adds.

If you have a pay per minute modem connection and want to keep the FAQ easyly accessable or are just annoyed at the FAQ-MAN adds taking forever to load, just download a copy of the entire FAQ and keep it on your HD. Here's a howto:

1) Download any freeware/shareware siteripping software (I recomend HTTrack).
2) Rip everything in the following directory "".
3) Shut down your pay per minute connection.
4) Now set your browser to Off-Line browsing mode and start with the first page. In Netscape/Mozilla just click the "connectors" in the lower left corner, IE I don't use myself so you'll have to figure it out yourself.

Remeber though that all webpages are to be handled as copyrighted material
ie don't spread your copy all over the place!

3. What are the different ranks on the Forum ?

Paradox employees, Moderators & Official representatives of Distributors can set their own "rank" text.
Mere mortal´s rank however, depends on their total number of posts in the PUBLIC & closed sections, but not the FUN section, of the forum.

Field Marshal2500+ (?)
Lt. General1200-1699
1st Lieutenant200-299
2nd Lieutenant100-199

4. What should I do if my game crashes ?

This is the list of the info you should provide Paradox in a crash report:

1. Language version of EU (we take for granted that the latest patch is being used as none of the previous versions are supported as soon as a newer is released).
2. Operating System.
3. DirectX version (which should be at least 7.0a).
4. Hardware (CPU speed and brand, Soundcard, Graphics card and amount of memory installed).
5. What was happening when the game crashed (i.e. "I clicked xxx and the...").
6. If possible we would like to have a zipped copy of a saved game where this happens.

We would prefer to get this via e-mail to but you can also post in the support forum.

The Badboy value Explained

What is the Badboy value ?

The badboy value was created to stop Civ style powermongers takeing over half the world in a very unhistorical way. The BB value itself is not visable in game so to find out how much of a "powermonger" you've been until present, you have to check your savefile (search for badboy and click next untill you reach your own country).

How does it work ?

Sofar there hasn't been any in depth information from Paradox but generally, everything that upset the relative powerbalance between the nations of the time wasn't well liked, especially among those that lost power relatively from it. Thus basicly, if you are too expansive, neighbours will start looking at you as the plague of Europe. They will also form alliances and attack you every chance they get (while your for instance are occupied on another front) even if you have high relations with them, just to teach you a lesson in "social behaviour".

However certain "expansive" actions are more despised or acceptable then others. For instance:

• Annexing complete countries of the same religion without having a casus belli is a big no-no.
• Taking provinces from friendly neighbours with the same religion is generally bad.
• Expansive/successfull colonial politics are also seen with weariness from your European neighbours. They wouldn't want you to get much more powerfull "over there" then they are.

• Takeing a few provinces in defensive wars however, is usually seen upon as quite acceptable (remember though, even wars that was declared by any of your allies, puts you on the offensive side, if you participate).
• Taking a province or two from a heathen you have casus belli against is normally ok too.
• Takeing money in peace negotiations instead of provinces is also good for keeping your bad boy value low.

Update: High badboy value also worsens relations with other countries, so the they turn away from you. Even present allies will slowly get the hang of it.

So now everyone and their grandma is attacking me, which is fair enough, but how do i make them stop ?

The best way to stop beeing attaked en masse, is not to be the "badest boy" around to begin with. This simply becourse all these rules apply to all AI nations too (Johan simply doesn't belive in cheating AIs). If you play France and #1 badboy is Spain, you can even join the other nations into cutting him down to size.

Once you´re public enemy #1 however the simple, but harsh medicine to get the others off your back, is to give up provinces, lose wars, stay at peace. Of curse you can try to actually fight them all too, but this is usually not a very successfull strategy (especially if you have 250 years of gameplay left ...).
Updated: Badboy value also slowly decreases over time, so if your in this mess, really consider switching to peaceful development for quite a long time just taking provinces in defensive wars & fighting occasional attackwars (started by an ally) to a white peace.
Also it is generally not a good idea to hurry ahead in conquest, because rising badboy value of other countries helps by, as already mentioned, all AI nations not directing all their efforts against You and You alone.



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